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                                       Figure 5. Fentanyl Combination Reports, 2014 – 2017

              Fentanyl and Other Synthetic Opioids

                    Source: DEA

                                                                   the source of the fentanyl. DEA and Customs
                  DEA’s Fentanyl Signature Profiling               and Border Protection (CBP) reporting indicates
                                                                   the fentanyl shipped directly from China is
                  The FSPP performs in-depth chemical analyses     typically seized in smaller quantities with
                  on fentanyl and fentanyl-related exhibits        purities commonly testing above 90 percent.
                  obtained from seizures made throughout           By comparison, fentanyl trafficked overland
                  the United States. Analytical methodologies      into the United States from Mexico is typically
                  developed at the Special Testing and Research    seized in larger, bulk quantities with much lower
                  Laboratory (STRL) give in-depth reporting on     purity, with exhibits on average testing at less
                  seizures and link seizures for intelligence      than ten percent pure. DEA’s FSPP reported
                  purposes. FSPP data is not intended to reflect   wholesale (typically ≥ 1 kg) fentanyl/heroin
                  U.S. market share but, rather, is a snapshot of   seizures accounted for approximately 16 percent
                  samples submitted to STRL from DEA regional      by weight of the powders examined. Across all
                  laboratories.                                    exhibits, fentanyl was mixed with heroin in 32
                                                                   percent of the exhibits examined; indicating drug
                  A new methodology recently developed by DEA
                  researchers can now routinely identify the       trafficking organizations (DTOs) at the regional
                  fentanyl synthetic route (>65 percent of current   and retail levels inside the United States are
                  samples). The previous methodology could         primarily responsible for the mixing of heroin and
                  only determine the route in approximately one    fentanyl rather than TCOs in Mexico.
                  percent of samples examined.                     According to NFLIS data, in 2017, fentanyl was
                                                                   most commonly observed as the only controlled
                                                                   substance in fentanyl exhibits tested by forensic

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